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Every patient has different dietary requirements and what is good for one may be harmful for another. One can have his/her own diet chart after initial consultation with the dietitian / nephrologist, which later on will be reviewed and changed whenever necessary.

With severe kidney failure, diet has a big impact on daily life. A proper diet can
- Provide proper nutrition
- Reduce the workload on kidneys
- Preserve residual renal functions (remaining kidney functions) for longer period
- Overcome problems of itching, nausea, vomiting, etc.
- Control high blood pressure and sugar problems (for diabetic patients)
Diet includes various components like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, etc. Out of these components protieins, minerals (potassium, calcium, sodium , phosphate), vitamins, fiber, fluid etc. are important for renal failure patients.

Recommended dietary Nutrient intakes for CAPD patient

Components
Requirement
Protein 1.0 -1.2 g/kg/day
> 1.2 g/kg/day
(for severe malnutritioned)
Calories > 35 kcal/kg/day
Fat (% of total energy) 30-40
Carbohydrate Rest of Calories
Fiber Intake 20-25 g/day
Sodium 1-2 g/day
Potassium 40 meq/day
Calcium 800-1000 mg/day
Magnesium 200-300 mg/day
Phosphorus 8-15 mg/kg/day
Zinc 15 mg/day
Thiamine 1.5 mg/day
Riboflavin 1.8 mg/day
Pantothanic Acid 5 mg/day
Niacin 20 mg/day
Pyridoxine 10 mg/day
Vitamin B12 3 micro g/day
Vitamin C 60 mg/day
Folic Acid 1 mg/day
Vitamin A, E, K No addition
Proteins

Proteins are important in building and repairing of body tissues. In renal failure patients it is essential to remove the waste products like urea, creatinine, etc Patients with renal failure suffer from malnutrition, which may lead to protein catabolism, i.e. degradation of proteins in the body. The degradation of proteins leads to formation of urea, which in turn results in increased blood urea level. Increased blood urea level lead to nausea, vomiting, bad taste in mouth etc.
In PD, patients suffer from loss of protein (approx. 5-10 gms/day). So CAPD patients should take high protein diet (approx 1-1.2 gms/kg of body weight for adults)

There are two types of Protein

1. High quality protein / Animal protein : They contain all ingredients essential for tissue growth.
Source:
Vegetarian : Milk, paneer, soyabean, cheese, pulses, legumes etc.
Non Vegetarian : Meats, chicken, fish, eggs, etc.
2. Low quality protein / Plant protein : These proteins are obtained from vegetables, breads, cereals, and lake a few ingredients essential for tissue growth.
- Both types of protein are required for diet.
- Patients should contact a dietician to know their dietary requirements.

Vitamins

-Vitamins are vital nutrients, which are required in small amount for life and growth. Patients with kideny diseases have special vitamin needs.

Importance of Vitamins

- Vitamins help in getting energy from the food.
- Help in performance of body function

Vitamin need of renal failure patients is different because

- Special diet for kideny disease does not have many dairy products, fruits, or vegetables.
- Patients may not be eating a lot because patient may be uremic and thereby suffering from poor appetite.

It is important to take right amount of vitamins. Either too large or too small amount of vitamins can be bad for kidenys and health.